The title is Design Research On Mathematics Education : Indonesian Traditional Games As Preliminaries In Learning Measurement Of Length. This research has been done by Ariyadi Wijaya in 2008 and was written in Prosiding Konferensi Nasional Matematika XIV. The aim of this research is to develop an instructional activity to increase students’ understanding of basic concept of length measurement. It is very important because length measurement is one of mathematics domains that is used in our daily activity and has been a part of human civilization since centuries ago. It is taught from kindergarten until grade 6 of primary school. This research applied RME (Realistic Mathematics Education)because the teaching and learning in RME should be related to reality through problem situation. Reality means it isn’t always encountered in daily activity, but has to be experimentally real for students. While students are motivated to select their own strategies and explore their ideas, teacher is giving guidance for them. The reality that was chosen is traditional games, especially Gandu (playing with marbles where each player has to throw their marble from starting point to a pole. The winner is the player whose marble is closest to the pole) and Benthik (All players in each team have to hit a stick then measure the distance of the fallen stick. The winnner is the team which has the longer distance). Those games rich linear measurement concept, such as comparing, estimating, and measuring length.
This research used design research or development research that had 5 features, such as learning theories development (including designed instructional theory and used Indonesian Traditional Games as starting point of learning), intervationist nature (flexible), has a prosective and reflection component, cyclic character (invention and revision form on iterative process), and the theory has to deal with the real work. Its phases are preliminary design, teaching experiment, and retrospective analysis. For linking the instructional theory with the concrete teaching experiment, it used HLT (Hypothetical Learning Trajectory) that has three components: the learning goal that defines the direction, the learning activities, and hypothetical learning process (prediction of how students thinking and understanding). The data in this research were written and audio visual data.
This research chosen the students of second grade of SDN Percobaan 2 Yogyakarta as the subject. They were divided in 2 groups to play Traditional Games. Then, they had to measure length use blank ruler (ruler without number, for understanding of the covering space), normal ruler (ruler with number, to investigate how students measure the length of object), and broken ruler (ruler without zero point, to understand covering space and conception that any points can serve as starting point of measurement). This research was held during 3 weeks. The tryout of the HLT had been held in grade 1 and grade 2. The tryout in grade 1 was held to investigate pre knowledge of student, but the tryout in grade 2 was to investigate the achievement of the student in learning.
The result of this research consists of 2 majors, for grade 1 and grade 2. Student in grade 1 already perceived of the transitivity and indirect comparison ideas, but only imitated the appearance of ruler without getting sense of number. Most of them understood the concept of measurement as covering space, but didn’t perceive the concept of identical unit, one of the conceptual accomplishments of length measurement. Student in grade 2 understood the relation between size of unit and result measurement, but didn’t perceive the idea that measuring is covering space and the concept that any number can serve as zero point of measurement. The advantages of this result are Benthik and Gandu as one of Indonesian Traditional Games that can be used to motivate students to reinvent the identical unit of measurement and transfer the concept of covering space from non standard to standard measurement.
The conclution don’t directly connected to the Indonesian Traditional Games, but it able to be taken as an important consideration in deciding the Indonesian Traditional Games as preliminaries of teaching and learning of measurement length.
From this research, we able to learn at least 4 things. First, the crusial of using traditional games in learning to teach the student how important of respecting of our local tradition. Second, keep heritage of tradition. Third, the important of adaptation of RME in local situation. The last, RME able to increase students’ understanding because it uses the meaningful situation that closes with the students.